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Swami Dayanand Saraswati first declared that the Aryans are the original inhabitants of India and thus instilled new life and vigour into the body politic of the country and vested its people with the power to claim and secure self rule.- Vidyananda Saraswati.
History of India has yet to be written. Tradition of modern historical research founded by British scholars of repute were unfortunately coloured by their attitude towards Greece, Egypt and Rome which have a dead past and in a sense, dead exhibits. Our available sources of information are inadequate and, in so far as they are foreign, are almost invariably tainted with a bias towards Indian's conquerors. The attempts of British scholars, with the exception of Tod, have indeed, rather than helped the study of Indian history.
In most fields of human activity the Indian elite is more imitative than original. Creative thinking, which political independence should have activated, rarely animates Indian endeavours in literary or historical research. But our Teachers and leaders, looking through the eyes of the white man, whose race prejudice, pure and simple, prevails upon him to persists in his views about India, still continues to hold their old, wrong and damaging views about our ancient heritage. Generation after generation, during their school and college career, were told about the successive foreign invasions of the country, but little about how we resisted them and less about our victories. They were taught to decry the Hindu social into existence as a synthesis of political, social, economic and cultural forces.
Here is a passage from 'History and Civics' for class six published by N.C.E.R.T. -
"Until the discovery of Mohen-jo-daro and Harappa it was thought that Indian history began with the coming of the Aryans. But now we know that it is much older. The Aryans came from outside India, probably from North-Eastern Iran. When they first arrived in India they had to fight for the land with the people already living in India. These people they called the Dasyus or Dasas. The Dasyus are described as dark skinned with flat noses. They Dasyus did not worship the same god as the Aryans. They spoke the language which the Aryans did not understand, because the Aryans spoke Sanskrit. The Dasyus and those Aryans who had mixed with Dasyus and married them, were Shudras and were looked down upon. Gambling was their pastime. They ate meat and drank intoxicating drinks like Soma and Sura. They worshipped the Sun, the trees, rivers and mountains. Altars were built and animals were sacrificed."
- The Tribune, dated 18-1-1969
Commenting on this state of affairs, the great scientist, educationist and once chairman of University Grants Commission, Dr. D.S. Kothari said in his address at the International Conference on Science and Technology in 1969 -
"I regret that the center of gravity of India's intellectual life was outside India. We are influenced largely by what happened outside. Indian Universities have been implanted from outside and have not yet taken roots in the country's soil. Indian thought enshrined in ancient Sanskrit books did not find a place in the country's University education. The country should rediscover its ancient heritage."
It is not possible to completely wipe out the past; but it is quite possible to develop hatred for it by projecting it in a distorted form and tarnishing it beyond recognition. This is exactly what Macaulay and his associates, who were the architects of the educational policy of India, did. Old values were willfully obscured. Gradually they were forced to fade away and forgotten by posterity. What the succeeding generation were given to remember was only a vague and hazy picture of their glorious past. Western has taught us false values. We can never develop, the faith of a free nation if our universities still continue to depend upon histories of India of the British type for telling us what we are. To understand, to recapture and live upto the best in our culture it is necessary for a student of history to discover for himself the Aryans discipline, character and our outlook and to wrest the secrets of the Vedas. Macaulay and Maxmuller
With the advent of British rule in India a large number of English men had to be imported from England to assist in the governance and administration of the vast country. They were all products of the Christian Church who made common cause with the governance of the day that the whole world must be baptised and converted to christianity. One such man was Thomas Babhington Macaulay. In 'Education in India' he writes -
"The education of the people, conducted on those principles of morality which are common to all forms of christianity, is highly valuable as a means of promoting, is highly valuable as a means of promoting the main object for which the government exist. There is assuredly no country where it is more desirable that Christianity should be propagated".
- Historical Essays by Lord Macaulay, pp. 387-89
This enemy of India and India's glorious past, its ancient religion and culture, has been paraded so long and so often as a friend of India unwittingly. But it was Macaulay who planned to produce Indian boys and girls who should be Indian in blood and complexion but English in thought and deed. Letters reveals a man and the following letter, written by him to his father on October 12, 1836 thhrows bare the ignonimous intentions that he concealed behind the veneer and polish of English education.
"My dear father, our English schools are flourishing wonderfully - the effect of my system of education on the Hindus is prodigous. No Hindu who has received English education. Some continue to profess it as a matter of policy and some embrace Christianity. It is my belief that, if our plans of education are followed up, there will not be a single idolator among the respectable castes in Bengal thirty years hence. And this will be affected without the least interference with religious liberty, by natural operation of knowledge and reflection. I heartily rejoice in the prospect".
- The life and letters of Lord Macaulay by Sir George Otto Trevelyan Bart, pp. 329-90.
Macaulay, as a true Christian, was convinced that his translation of the Vedas based on the interpretation of Sayana and their scholarists, would take away the faith of Indians from the Vedas and, in consequence, help him in converting them to Christianity.
However, the result has been otherwise. Due to Dayanand and others who shared his views, the Vedas have become much more popular than in Macaulay's days and their teachings have started revitalising human mind. Dayanand's commentary of the Vedas on indigenous lines gave a fresh outlook and depth of vision which opened new vistas for another Indian savant, Aurobindo(Arvind) in his psychological approach.
Macdonell, in his preface to the first edition of his History of Sanskrit Literature, admitted in 1899 -
"Sanskrit is still spoken as the tongue of the learned by thousands of Indians, as it was centuries before our era. The Vedas are still learnt by heart as they were long before the invasion of Alexander, and could even now be restored from the lips of religious teachers if every manuscript or printed copies were destroyed.". (p.8).
Macaulay wrote that letter in 1836. He rejoiced at the prospects of this land and its people becoming Christian in the next thirty years - by 1886. And it was in the very same year that Maxmuller, another Christian missionary, engaged earlier for the purpose by the East India Company through Macaulay himself, thus wrote in a letter to his wife -
"This edition of mine and the translation of the Vedas will hereafter tell to a great extent on the fate of India. It is the root of their religion and to show them what the root is, I am sure, is the only way of uprooting all that has sprung from it during the last three thousand years".
- Life and Letters of Frederick Maxmuller
Macaulay had planned to annihilate or rather inject poison into the views of Hinduism. He wanted to launch a multi-pronged attack. From one side Christianilty was to be introduced to the Hindu through the medium of Sanskrit and from another Hinduism was to be misinterpreted to him through the medium of English. It was, therefore, thought necessary, officially and unofficially, to decry ll other translation of the Vedas and commend, uphold, prize, laud, applaud, eulogise and recognise those by western scholars and from amongst Orienalists only those which on purpose misrepresented the Vedic teachings. Macaulay has thrown his net wide and ultimately caught Maxmuller for doing this abominable and hideous job. All distorted and falsified versions of the Vedas then emanated from the pen which Macaulay had pushed into Maxmuller's fingers. Consequently these spurious and altogether false interpretations of the Vedas were made the subject of study in Indian schools, Colleges and Universities.
Like Macaulay, Maxmuller too feigned, professed and pretended to be a friend of India. That is why an eminent man like Swami Vivekanand failed to see through his collision in the theo-political conspiracy hatched and pefected first by the British East India Company and then by the government of India to wipe out Hinduism and supplant Christianity. He was deeply affected by Maxmuller's love for India.
"I wish, i has a hundredth part of your love for my motherland. Endowed with an extra-ordinary and at the same time an intensely active mind, he has lived and moved in the world of Indian thought for fifty years or more and watched the sharp interchange of light and shade in the interminable forest of Sanskrit literature with deep interest and heart-felt love, till they have sunk into his very soul and coloured his whole being."
The Swami Vivekanand asked Maxmuller - "When are you coming to India? All men there would welcome one who has done so much to place the thoughts of theris ancestors in true light". ( Biography )
Boden Chair of Sanskrit - The Motives Behind
One colonel Boden founded at Oxford the Boden chair of Sanskrit on August 15, 1811. The intention and the purpose behind the founding of this chair was to produce intellectuals who could be instrumental in converting the Hindus to Christianity. The founder had most emplicitly stated in his 'Will', made before his death that the object of this munificent bequest was to promote the translation of scriptures so as to enable his countrymen to proceed in the conversion of the natives of India to the Christian religion. - Manier William's Preface to his Sanskrit - English Dictionary.
Macaulay was a product of this cell. Macaulay's eyes fell on Maxmuller who was a german by birth. He picked him for this purpose and had him attacked to his cell.
Horace Haymen Wilson was appointed first Boden Professor of Sanskrit in the Oxford University in 1833. He wrote a book on the 'Religious and Philosophical System of the Hindus'. Explaining the compulsions for writing such a book, he said - "These lectures were written to help candidate for a prize of $200 - given by John Muair, a well known great Sanskrit scholar, for the best refutation of the Hindu Religious System." Monier Williams was the second occupant of the Boden Chair of Sanskrit. Revealing the real object of the establishing of the Boden Chari, he thus delivers himself -
"Brahmanism, therfore, must die out. In point of fact, false ideas in the most ordinary scientific subject are so mixed up with its doctrines that the commonest education - the simplest lessons in geography without the aid of Christianity must inevitably in the end sap its foundation".
He further stated in his book 'The Study of Sanskrit in relation to Missionary Work in India' that "When the walls of the mighty fortress of Hinduism are encircled, undermined and finally stormed by the cross, the victory of Christianity must be signal and complete."
This book was written with sole object of promoting Christianity and ousting Hinduism. Inspite of this, some of our Indian Sanskrit scholars call these European scholars, unbiased students of Sanskrit literature, whose sole aim has been to acquire knowledge for its own sake. And Swami Vivekanand went to the extent of eulogising Maxmuller as 'one who has done so much to place the thought of their ancestors in true light'.
Congratulating Maxmuller for his efforts, his friend E.B. Pussay wrote to him - "Your work will mark a new era in the effort for the conversion of India".